Want to know more on how to organize education for children with disabilities the most effectively?
Teaching school children with special needs
Special Education is a particular area of education which requires using unique teaching materials, methods, equipment, and educational aids to comply with the needs of children with developmental disabilities.
Remedial instruction is aimed at improving a skill/ ability in every student. Thus, by applying different tutoring techniques, such as a recurrent practice and explanation, educational material repeating, and devoting more time to developing particular skills, teachers guide every child through the special educational process.
Any tutor with a bachelor’s or master’s degree in education is free to join a course on Special Education, which is offered in many collegiate institutions.
What is more, a lot of organizations have short-term programs providing teachers with the profound knowledge in the area of Special Education.
For those seeking to work with children with learning disabilities, the most recommended is to sign up for courses that last for a year at least.
Usually, special education instructors follow a general education program and just modify it in order to make it comply with individual needs of each child.
The popular majority of special education programs is of the elementary, middle, and even secondary levels and provides instruction for speech impairments, visual and hearing disabilities, autism, emotional disturb and other health problems.
A necessary condition for the successful organization of training and education of children with disabilities is to provide an adaptive environment, promoting their full integration and personal self-realization.
Furthermore, appropriate material and technical conditions in the educational institution must be created, providing an opportunity for unimpeded access for children with impaired physical and mental development in the buildings and premises of the educational institution.
Effective integrated training is possible only if teachers of educational establishments have taken a special course, whose aim is to teach principal methods of upbringing and tutor children with physical and mental disabilities.
What is more, apart from the standard educational program, it is necessary to provide psychological and pedagogical support to the child with disabilities throughout the period of his training.
This support should include not only a special correctional and developmental work with kids individually and in groups, but also the work of a tutor with the administration and parents.
To this end, it is expedient to introduce an additional rate for students from teachers, speech pathologists, therapists, and psychologists.
In the integrated education for children with disabilities, individual training plans are usually developed based on the basic curriculum of a special (correctional) educational institution in respect to the federal state educational standards.
If the terms of a comprehensive development program for some students are not consistent with the norm, then a tutor makes corresponding notes in a separate class register which records academic performance of children with special needs.
General advice on how to organize training of students with disabilities
1. Talking to the child’s parents. It is necessary to get as much information about the child as possible (his character traits, behaviors, habits, etc.).
2. Consulting with professionals: a medical specialist who has explored the child; pathologists; psychologist; speech therapist. It is necessary for the proper and most effective organization of the educational process, ensuring full protection of children’s health.
3. Planning the simultaneous work of specialists (a teacher, psychologist, speech therapist) for the proper compilation of a case management plan.
4. Studying the program of special (correctional) institutions recommended to the child by the psychological, medical, and pedagogical commission.
5. Preparation of both children and parents to the adoption of a new student to the class.
Things a teacher should know
When teaching how to write, it is necessary to prepare a hand for it. For this purpose, there are special exercises which children with special needs have to perform during some period of time.
Further, a teacher must determine the location of a child with cerebral palsy in the classroom so that he could freely stand or get out of their desks.
What is more, the space on the table should be sufficient for the free manipulation of textbooks, stationery, etc.
After watching an apprentice at first, the teacher must understand in what position it is more convenient for a student to carry out written works and answer a teacher: sitting or standing.
It is also necessary to vary the amount and form of written tasks execution so that the child keeps up with the pace of the work of the class without making him overtired and providing him the opportunity for the formation of learning skills.
Evaluation work must be carried out taking into account the individual characteristics of the child.
Thus, the implementation of integrated education of children with special needs in secondary school creates a foundation for building a qualitatively new interaction between mass and special education, overcoming barriers and making the boundaries between them transparent.
A prerequisite for the integrated education of children is a well-established process of interaction between students in different areas of the school activities: education, sports, and recreation.
Cooperative learning promotes socialization of children with special needs and normally creates an environment for developing children in which they are beginning to realize that the world is one community of people, including those with disabilities.
Nevertheless, each child with special needs has the right for the necessary specialized psycho-pedagogical assistance and support.
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