First Aid in Schools

Health & safety of students and people in an organisation is important and first aid in schools provision is very important. Named first aid people should be responsible for administering first aid with one overall coordinator, possibly a nurse.

The coordinator should:

• Ensure that any particular emergency treatments which may be required following an accident involving any hazardous substances in the school are available and that sufficient staff are trained to deal with such treatments.

• Keep a log and make the contents known to staff of any students or employees who have medical requirements or require specific medication.

• Retain photographs of children or employees with serious medical conditions and treatment required in the staffroom.

• Appraise staff of any changes to students/staff on the list of those with medical conditions or receiving treatment.

• Post notices to advise on the location of first aid and emergency facilities and the identity of those persons appointed to dispense such facilities.

• Train staff in basic first aid procedures in order that they may deal with minor injuries as described below.

First Aid in Schools Guidance

Plastic gloves and aprons should be available in the first aid cupboards and worn when treating patients who are bleeding. Gloves must be pulled off so that they are inside out and the contaminated side is not exposed and gloves and dressings should be placed inside a plastic bag and placed in a covered bin.

Surfaces, including the playground, must be cleaned with an approved cleaning agent after contact with blood or other body fluids.

Ice packs should be available for bumps and bruising. Students with head bumps must be taken to a first aider, a record should be made in the accident book and parents informed.

Injuries where a student receives treatment must be recorded in the accident book and the parents informed of the circumstances of the injury. The head teacher must be informed of any injury classed as greater than a minor injury. Typical minor injuries are small bumps on the body, grazes or scratches.

Emergency services must be called IMMEDIATELY for serious accidents including:

• Any head injuries and wounds needing stitches.
• All suspected fractures.
• Unconsciousness.
• Use of an epipen (epipen to be taken to hospital with the casualty).

The parent(s) should be contacted to ascertain when they can join their child and their wishes with regard to treatment should they be delayed. The head teacher may agree to emergency medical treatment if the parents or guardians can not be contacted.

A member of staff must accompany and stay with the student until the parent(s) arrive. The contact details and the student file (if appropriate) must be taken to the hospital. On arrival at the hospital the student’s contact details are handed over so that the hospital can take responsibility for any further contact with the parents.

Medication and Managing Illness

With the exception of inhalers (which students need access to at all times) students are not allowed to keep medicines/treatments with their belongings. Medicines should be marked clearly with the person’s name and dosage and stored in a locked cupboard or designated refrigerator under the supervision of the nurse.

Manual Handling and Lifting

The risk of injury, due to the manual handling of loads, must be recognised by the school and all measures taken as necessary to reduce such risks through individual risk assessments.

First aid in schools is not only a safety standard, it is also a requirement of operating a school with students.

Education Tay

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Three Leading Characteristics of School Leadership

Vision

Leadership vision appears to be one of the more important characteristics of a leader, although studies of leadership vision cast doubt on vision being an important part of leadership and what extent it has on teachers, students and parents. Beare et al., (1992, p.99) states that “Outstanding leaders have a vision of their schools – a mental picture of a preferred future – which is shared with all in the school community”. Strength of the leader’s vision could be weak in respect to teachers, parents and students not sharing a school leader’s vision or the actual vision being communicated in the first place. Bolam et al., (1993, p.36) conducted a study in a number of schools and concluded:

“In most of the schools comparatively few teachers were able to speak with any confidence about the elements of the vision. This would suggest that… the head teachers of these schools had not consciously and deliberately set out to communicate their vision to colleagues and to ensure that its influence permeated every aspect of organisational life”.

Mintzberg (1994) contributes to the leadership vision debate and suggests poor strategic implementation by schools could restrict the attainment of a schools vision. A clear leadership vision could be accepted by all stakeholders of a school although conflicts and problems with respect to vision, goals and teacher recruitment could pose a problem.

Distributed Leadership

Harris et al., (2002) claim that single school leaders days are numbered and a new leadership model is emerging that takes into account the limitations to an organisation that is going through change or development centred on just one person. Student learning & development and teachers development is seen more beneficial when responsibilities are distributed to other managers throughout a school. Hargreaves et al., (2006) claims that the idea of distributed leadership is the way in which a school has distributed leadership responsibilities and the rationale for the distribution model adopted towards the success of the practice. In contrast, a study into school leadership by (PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP 2007; cited Dfes, 2007 p.108) found that “There is a perception that some headteachers find it difficult to relinquish control. This is linked to a view held by many staff, parents and the wider community that ‘only the head will do”. Here distributive leadership does not account for effective leadership when delegated to middle or junior managers, and a leader of a school does not have direct control over the quality or effectiveness of distributed leadership decisions.

Teacher/Instructional leadership

Harris and Muijs, (2003) explain that “In contrast to traditional notions of leadership, teacher leadership is characterised by a form of collective leadership in which teachers develop expertise by working collaboratively” (Harris and Muijs, 2003; cited NCSL, 2003, p.3). Leithwood et al., (1999) states that empathises on instructional leadership for leaders is critically centred on behaviour. Here, this is the behaviour of teachers, although the level and type of behaviour of individual teachers and groups of teachers to provide effective learning to students is unclear. Leithwood et al., (1999, p.8) further states that “Instructional leadership models typically assume that school leaders, usually principals, have both the expert knowledge and the formal authority to exert influence on teachers.”

Head teachers can lead a school, although providing classroom teachers with specialist knowledge and guidance in every department such as English, mathematics or science would pose a big problem due to the constrained lack of specialist knowledge and up to date subject and teaching & learning strategies. Leithwood et al., (1999) notion is backed up and extended to provide a different view where Adcock, (1997, p.3) further states that:

“Effective learning in a multicultural setting depends on ‘comprehensible input’ – that is the level at which the teacher can make content understandable to the learner. This can be done in a number of ways which include using the student’s native language, using visual supports such as gestures, pictures, maps etc to enrich what is being said”.

Head teachers do not have the required subject knowledge, teaching and learning ideas or strategies to provide advice, training and guide teachers to deliver effective lessons in all school subject areas of a school, including multi ethnic schools.

Educational Learning & Development

The Oxford Minidictionry (1991, p.291) provides a definition of learning stating that it is “Knowledge obtained by study”. This definition is very broad and encompasses all types of learning at all levels. Similarly, Collins Essential English Dictionary (2006) states that development is a process of growth or developing and an occurrence that changes a specific situation. Learning and development in schools is seen at all levels from management activities & practice, teachers and especially from students.

“Teacher leadership is primarily concerned with developing high quality learning and teaching in schools. It has at its core a focus upon improving learning and is a mode of leadership premised upon the principles of professional collaboration, development and growth” Harris and Muijs, (2003, p.2,3).

Senior teachers in schools pass on good practice to teachers through training and their own teaching practice in the classroom for successful and effective student learning. Teacher leaders may pass on good teaching practice, although to what level is not exactly known.

Bennett et al., (1993) explained that the introduction of the National Curriculum (NC) in the Education Reform Act 1988 subsequently led to recognition that a significant amount of teachers did not have enough specialist subject knowledge they required to teach all parts of the key stage 2 national curriculum. An absence of adequate subject knowledge to teach a core subject such as science or English is alarming, although internal and external courses could meet requirements of individual subject teachers. Good teacher support and learning could only help with raising standards for student attainment.

The importance of quality teaching is vital to student learning and subject development. (Beane, 1998; Barth 1999; cited NCSL, 2003, p.4) states that “Research also shows that teachers who work together in a meaningful and purposeful way are more likely to remain in the profession because they feel valued and supported in their work”.

Consistency and continuity of teachers staying in the same school could help, although does not address the lack of subject knowledge to teach a specific subject effectively for good student results. An alternative view by Silns et al., (2002) puts forward a notion that classroom teachers would find is fairly difficult to first create and then sustain into the future the environment for improvements in pupil learning if a teachers own learning is not enhanced. Where classroom teachers share good practice and effectively learn together the possibility of securing better quality teaching is therefore increased.

Written by: Education Tay

Ray Blanchett

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Classroom Display Boards

A school environment and in particular a classroom display boards should be a secure and stimulating area in which all staff and students take pride in school work that is part of a classroom display.

Classroom display boards and corridors should be kept tidy with regular and high quality classroom display of students’ work and other materials to celebrate achievement. Students derive a great deal of pride and encouragement in seeing their work as part of a classroom display on walls and as a display in corridors. Teachers should claim ‘ownership’ of teaching rooms, although only good and accurate work should be part of a classroom display.

Display boards must be attractively backed mounted for a real impact. Use of drawing pins (Where appropriate) could be use as part of a classroom display or Blue Tac or staples. Borders around the display provide a good look with drapes and artefacts adding to the effect as part of the classroom display.

Classroom Display should:

- Be varied, well arranged and related to the recent, current and impending learning of students.

- Include some topical matter or issue.

- Include students’ ideas and work.

- Labelled clearly to indicate the learning with which the whole display or individual items within it are concerned.

- Well maintained, and modified or dismantled when they have ‘run their educational course’, rather than being allowed to ‘age’ or disintegrate.

- Made secure when any valuable items are included.

- Represent different countries and cultures or illustrations of these in connection with various environments: local, national and international.

- Act as teaching and learning aids to support teaching staff and the curriculum.

The above classroom display idea/reminders are basic and may be different from school to school, age or public and independent schools. A classroom display can be a learning recourse, a prompt, guidance or can be used as a celebration of success.

Written by: Education Tay

Ray Blanchett

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Alexa Ranking Lesson

Today’s lessons at school or college tend to be cross curricular learning in nature, Alexa ranking lesson could be used in English, history, mathematics and information communication technology (Ict). Alexa rank lesson in school can be used in basic mathematics lessons and ict lessons for 11-12 year old core lessons.

Alexa
Alexa Image Logo

Firstly, What is Cross Curricular Learning

This is where specific learning in a particular topic subject area is used in learning another subject. For example learning calculus in mathematics can be used for learning in a science subject. Using learning from one subject area can help to reinforce and extend learning in particular subject topics, which can be used as a teaching strategy for class group activities.

What is Alexa Rank

Alexa is a company that operates a website (Alexa.com) that helps to measure the traffic or metrics that every website on the internet receives. Only the top 100,000 thousand websites according to Alexa can have their visitors accurately measured. Aim is to get closest to a global rank of 1 as possible, lower the number the better. Alexa measures only the unique visitors and pages clicked from visitors with the Alexa toolbar installed.

Estimated Visitor Traffic

Websites traffic outside the top 100,000 data has a statement “this websites traffic is estimated” on their Alexa.com page. A website owner can place a piece of code in the header and sign up to “certify the sites metrics” whereby Alexa computer programme visits their website daily to accurately measure unique traffic. Each website is awarded a global rank and a rank in a specific country, when the website receives enough traffic for measurement.

Global Rank Alexa Traffic Rank

Updated Daily

1,116,276 8,344,502

• -8344502%
Rank in United Kingdom Traffic Rank in Country

Inaccurate Data

As a result of many website owners not verifying their websites metrics the vast majority of visible ranking data Alexa shows is not particularly accurate. In addition Alexa ranking does not take into account other website visitors behaviour that does not have the Alexa toolbar installed.

Lowering Alexa Ranking

Forming a strategy and a plan to achieve the best possible Alexa rank you can is vital. Ways to lower you Alexa Rank from millions down under 100,000 for instance will take on average 3 months of working on your plan. You require forming relationships with people and building up a loyal visitor list that comes to your website frequently.

Look at:

• Proper website structure, interlinking pages, search engine friendly url’s, carefully research appropriate keywords, least amount of meta description and title tags duplication will help greatly.

• Registar for an Alexa account.

• Install the Alexa toolbar on your computers and ask people to visit your website using the Alexa toolbar.

• Claim you website by placing Alexa code in the header of your website.

• Place Alexa widget showing traffic on your website/blog.

• Write popular detailed articles for your website, daily if possible or 2-3 days per week with 800+ words and with pictures.

• Blog comment on are similar niche websites.

• Write as many guest posts for other websites in your niche with a good amount of traffic and authority.

• Optimise each webpage.

• Take part in challenges, contests or host them on you website.

• Add popular software or download on your website.

• Join forces with other business to promote products or joint marketing for popular products and services.

• Write unique written articles only, not copied. Also, try to write about a topic that has little references on the internet, whereby you are not competing with hundreds of very similar pages. You could choose a topic and integrate it with another topic area, as this page shows.

• Get recognised as an expert or a certain group that the popular media talk about.

• Join social networking websites and share your articles between friends and like minded groups you joined.

• Combine article marketing on the internet with off the internet events, such clubs, events and possible fairs meeting up with people in person.

• Gain high authority links to the article page, although not that easy in reality which will help to be more visible on the internet.

• Choosing to write about topics that attract mostly people with the Alexa toolbar installed helps greatly, such as technology, make money online, seo, Alexa, web design and similar.

• Patience and regular steady working toward your goal will help you achieve lowering Alexa rank for your website.

This is what has work for other successful website owners have reported. I have just started on the journey.

Alexa Ranking Usage in Lessons

-In 11-12 year old ict, mathematics and English lessons pupils could work in groups learning about core topics in theses subjects.

Mathematics Lesson:

Alexa uses averaging over 3 months, daily updates of visitor and page views. Part of the curriculum pupils learn about averages, median, mean, subtracting.

A mathematics teacher could develop a lesson plan that looks at a popular website Alexa ranking to help teach and extend learning of a topic such as subtracting and how to work out percentages.

English Lesson:

A lesson could be taught using what pupils have learned about Alexa in ict or mathematics lessons. Possible core topics use for Alexa could be spelling, writing or reading.

ICT Lesson:

Lessons used looking at a popular website and show/teach pupils how popular a social network or child’s magazine is and how many visitor it attracts. See how it could fit into the ict curriculum for a certain age range.

Teachers could get together and form a plan to teach certain topics using Alexa to first teach a topic and then extend learning for more able pupils.

Choose a popular website to look at or ask for a class vote to keep pupils interested and engaged.

This lesson planning idea could be used at college, school or university level for teaching and learning at different age groups and topic complexity.

Written by: Education Tay

Ray Blanchett

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Curriculum Planning for Effective Teaching and Learning

Essential to the effective implementation of the curriculum being delivered. When possible, curriculum planning should be documented online so that all curriculum is accessible and easily updated. Consideration and systematic planning ensures that students experience relevant work that increases in difficulty at the right time. Curricular planning requires to be at three levels; long-term strategic planning, mid-tem planning, short-term/lesson plans.

The national curriculum provides a basic framework for subject content with programmes of study defining what should be taught at each key stage. Level descriptions and end of key stage statements provide examples of what the ‘average’ student is expected to achieve at each stage.

Long Term Strategic Plans

Strategic curriculum planning provides all teachers teaching the subject with the broad framework within which they need to work. Curriculum planning should be in line with the school’s vision and values, whilst recognising the imperatives of the subject such as the content, skills and understanding to be gained, and the ages and needs of the students. The entire planning process must be responsive to change, designed to respond to any external or internal pressures and reflect the evaluations carried out by staff and the needs of the children.

Planning Enables:

• See how the subject can link to others in the curriculum and sets out how this will be achieved.

• Have a common framework within which to identify their own objectives, establish plans and approaches to achieve these, using available resources efficiently and effectively.

• Planning can evaluate the effectiveness of their provision and students’ progress against the planning.

• To modify the curriculum and the approach to teaching and learning in light of their evaluation.

Medium Term Planning

Medium term planning provides teachers with manageable units of work to enable individual teachers to:

• Preview work over a whole key stage.

• Plan units of work and a series of lessons within a unit.

• Plan work involving other colleagues and subjects.

• Planning provides space and time for specific experiences e.g. visits, speaker’s etc.

Planning Ensures

• Planning is well focused with repeated, developing experiences and content from previous years.

• Teaching approaches are designed to meet the broad range of desirable experiences.

• Resources are clearly identified and how they should be used.

• Planning ensures leaders of subjects have a framework to monitor the subject over time.

Planning Decisions

• Order and emphasis including revisiting and revision.

• Skills, knowledge, understanding.

• Practical hands on experiences.

• Cross-curricular links.

• Lengths of time to maximise learning.

Curriculum planning provides objectives for each course and unit, concepts developed, teaching & learning strategies and assessment opportunities.

Short Term Plans

Planning through lesson plans is devised straight from the medium term plans or scheme of work. Lesson plans provide teachers with a means of giving a structure to their lessons in which the learning objectives are clear, the teaching and learning approaches are appropriate, and the accommodation and resources well organised. Curriculum plans also provide for assessment and evaluation to be carried out in the interests of students and teachers.

Education Tay

Ray Blanchett

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